Glossary

Glossary

Alloy
A substance having metallic properties and being composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.
Advanced Metallurgy
The term summarizing AMG’s material science based activities including the production and development of alloys and alloying elements; the engineering, production and development of vacuum furnace systems for such materials; the engineering for, and the operation of, surface treatment systems for parts produced from alloyed materials; and the development, engineering and application of new coating technologies for metallic and non-metallic surfaces.
Antimony (Sb)
A lustrous grey metalloid mineral. AMG mines antimony ores and produces antimony trioxide and master-batches from antimony metal. AMG's antimony products are primarily used as flame retardant in pigment, plastics, and glass.
Carbon / Natural Graphite (C)
A natural polymer of carbon is a critical material with a broad number of end uses including fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, carbon brushes for electronics and heat resistant insulation.
Critical Raw Materials
A group of minerals considered as critical due to supply risks, economic importance and technology demand. The USA, Germany, UK and EU have identified 31 critical materials. AMG is active in 13 of these critical materials.
Cerium (Ce)
A rare earth element, cerium oxide is an important component of glass polishing powders and phosphors used in screens and fluorescent lamps.
Chromium Metal (Cr)
An element which is an essential raw material used in the hardening of steel alloys, superalloys, and the production of specialty steels and some aluminum alloys.
Directional Solidification System (DSS)
A furnace used for melting and crystallization of silicon chunks into silicon ingots with a proper crystal structure. Silicon ingots are used in the solar industry to produce wafers, cells and modules.
Electron Beam (EB) Furnace
A melting furnace produced by AMG that using high-energy electron beams in a vacuum environment to melt metals into a water-cooled crucible thus produce high-purity materials such as tantalum for electronics, niobium and alloys for the infrastructure industry, titanium applications for the aerospace industry, and zirconium products for the chemical industry.
Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Furnace
A consumable electrode remelting furnace produced by AMG in which an AC current is passed from an electrode through a molten slag pool to improve cleanliness and structure of alloys. Major applications for ESR furnaces include production of superalloys for the aerospace and power turbines and nickel-base alloys for the chemical industry.
Ferronickel Molybdenum (FeNiMo)
A ferroalloy of iron, nickel and molybdenum. AMG produces FeNiMo from spent catalysts. FeNiMo is a valuable additive utilized in the production of specialty stainless and carbon steels.
Ferrovanadium (FeV)
A ferroalloy of iron and vanadium, usually containing 45% to 80% vanadium. AMG produces FeV used in the production of steel to improve the strength to weight ratio.
Gamma Titanium Aluminum
A high performance material that can replace nickel super alloys up to a working temperature of 850 °C especially in aircraft engines, combustion engines and gas turbines. AMG produces gamma titanium aluminum with its proprietary technologies.
Heat Treatment (HT)
A controlled heating and cooling of metals in a vacuum environment to alter their physical and mechanical properties without changing the product shape that can help other manufacturing process and can also improve product performance by increasing strength or other desirable characteristics. AMG produces vacuum Heat Treatment furnaces and provides Heat Treatment Services (HTS).
Impermeable Graphite-Glass Matrix (IGM)
A non-porous Graphite-Glass-Matrix material produced by AMG with proprietary technologies for embedding of high radioactive graphite wastes from nuclear power plants, thus reduce risks of contamination to the environment.
Mixed Oxide (MOX)
A nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material usually plutonium blended with uranium. AMG provides furnaces and engages in services for the production of MOX using recycled weapons-grade plutonium.
Master Alloy
Alloys rich in one or more desired addition elements, which is added to a metal melt to raise the percentage of a desired constituent.
Mono2TM
AMG's patented Mono2 process technologies installed on AMG's multi-crystalline silicon ingot production furnace capable of producing mono-crystalline ingots for solar PV panels.
Niobium (Nb)
An exotic alloy valued for its strength at extremely high temperatures and its ability to superconduct electricity with minimal resistance at very low temperatures. AMG primarily produces niobium oxide used as coating materials on turbine blade engines in the aerospace and energy applications.
Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD)
A variety of methods to deposit thin films by condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various workpiece surfaces such as wafers.
Precision Casting Furnace
A vacuum casting furnace produced by AMG in which an alloy is inductively melted and then cast into an investment mold. The process allows the production of components with accuracy, repeatability, versatility and integrity in a variety of metals and high-performance alloys, primarily for aerospace applications.
Permanent Mounted Transducer System (PMTS)
AMG's patented Permanent Mounted Trasducer System that provides accurate measurement (+/-) 3% of bolt clamp load with ultrasonic technology, widely used in applications for the aerospace, energy, infrastructure, and transportation industries.
Silicon Metal (Si)
A semi-metal produced from reduction of quartz by carbon, in electric arc furnaces, with pre-baked or composite electrodes. AMG produces 99.3% purity chemical grade silicon metal primarily used as an alloying element for aluminum alloys for casting and extrusions or as the basic raw material for silicones produced by the chemicals industry.
Sintering
A method for making objects from powder by heating the material below its melting point until its particles adhere to each other. AMG produces sintering furnaces primarily for powder metallurgy.
Spent Catalyst Recycling
A process that converts spent catalysts from oil producers into commercial products. AMG produces ferrovanadium and related ferroalloys from spent refinery catalysts using a proprietary pyrometallurgical process.
Superalloys
Heat-resistant alloys based on such materials as nickel, iron-nickel, cobalt, or titanium that exhibit high strength and resistance to surface degradation at elevated temperatures.
Tantalite
A mineral consisting of tantalum oxide, iron and manganese that occurs with niobite or in coarse granite. AMG mines tantalite as raw materials to produce tantalum concentrate.
Tantalum (Ta)
A hard grey lustrous metallic element which is highly resistant to corrosion. AMG mines tantalum ore and produces tantalum concentrate used primarily in capacitors in electronics due to its high capacitance in small volumes, thus helping enable miniaturization of electronics.
Thermal Spraying
A coating process in which heated materials are sprayed onto a surface. The feedstock material is heated by electrical (plasma or arc) or chemical combustion flame. AMG's coating materials available for thermal spraying include metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics and composites for various industrial applications such as wear protection and corrosion protection.
Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)
Advanced materials usually applied to metallic surfaces, such as gas turbine or aerospace engine parts, operating at elevated temperatures, as a form of exhaust heat management. AMG produces TBCs that allow aerospace engine parts to reach high gas inlet temperatures and enable a high energy conversion efficiency.
Thin Films
A layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness deposited onto a substrate or previously deposited layers. AMG produces specialty thin film materials for solar thin film cells and optical applications.
Tin (Sn)
A silvery, malleable post-transition metal, not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. AMG produces tin as a by product from tantalum mining and smelting activities.
Titanium (Ti)
Titanium and its alloys have very high strength-to-weight ratios and high resistance to corrosion. AMG produces titanium-based alloys and coating materials, and master alloys used primarily in aerospace and defense applications, as well as engineering systems for the production of titanium products.
Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) Furnace
A furnace produced by AMG that applies consumable-electrode remelting process, in a vacuum chamber in which heat is generated by an electric arc between the electrode and ingot. VARs are primarily used for melting of reactive metals (titanium, zirconium and their alloys) for the aerospace, chemical, and energy industries.
Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) Furnace
A furnace produced by AMG which is used in secondary metallurgy applied for refining treatment in the liquid state and adjustment of chemical composition and temperature of a material in order to achieve the high purity and quality materials. VIMs are used to produce nickel based superalloys for turbine blades and vanes for the aerospace and industrial gas turbine industries.
Vanadium (V)
A hard, silvery gray, and ductile element, widely used in the metallurgical industry. AMG primarily recycles vanadium from secondary materials and produces ferrovanadium for the steel industry, vanadium aluminum master alloys for the aerospace industry, and vanadium oxide for the specialty chemical industry.